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Európa  állatkertjei

 

 

MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH CARNIVORANS VI.

 

 

Mixed-species exhibits with Eared Seals (Otariidae), Walrus (Odobenidae) and Earless Seals (Phocidae)

                                                                  

 

Written by KRISZTIÁN SVÁBIK

Assistant Curator, Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden, Hungary

 

Uploaded: 13rd November 2018

 

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

 


 

Within the narrower meaning of the mixed-species exhibits this document deals with 10 species of otariids, 9 species of phocids and the Walrus.

 

In the list below you can see which species have been kept in mixed exhibits in captivity:

 

Eared Seals, Otariidae

 

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus Lesson, 1828

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia de Blainville, 1820

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea Péron, 1816

Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus Schreber, 1776

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis Zimmermann, 1783

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus Schreber, 1775

New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri Lesson, 1828

Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi Merriam, 1897

Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis J. E. Gray, 1872

 

Walrus, Odobenidae

 

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus Linnaeus, 1758

 

Earless Seals, Phocidae

 

Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866

Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758

Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus Erxleben, 1777

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791

Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758

Spotted Seal, Phoca largha Pallas, 1811

Baikal Seal, Pusa sibirica Gmelin, 1788

Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida Schreber, 1775

 


 

„Temporary” combinations

 


 

Before discussing the main topic it is worth mentioning some „temporary” mixed exhibits which means that seals are often displayed with dolphins or with other animals mainly during demonstrations to the public. Some of the examples with California Sea Lions are listed below:

 

  • California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong) and in Parc Astérix (Plailly, France)
  • California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Rough-toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis) in Gulf World Marine Park (Panama City Beach, Florida, United States of America)
  • California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus), Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea) in SeaWorld Orlando (Florida, United States of America)
  • California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in SeaWorld San Antonio (Texas, United States of America) and SeaWorld San Diego (California, United States of America)
  • California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea) in SeaWorld San Diego (California, United States of America)

 

California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

Parc Astérix, Plailly, France

Photo © Parc Astérix

 

California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

Ocean Park Hong Kong, Aberdeen, Hong Kong

Photo © Simon Hampel

 

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Rough-toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis)

Gulf World Marine Park, Panama City Beach, Florida, United States of America

Photo © Gulf World Marine Park

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)

SeaWorld San Diego, California, United States of America

Photo © Scott Richardson

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea)

SeaWorld San Diego, California, United States of America

Photo © www.familytravelsecrets.com

 


 

 

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS - OTARIIDAE

 

The list shows examples of species combinations with at least one species of otariids combined with the taxa below

 

 


 California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

West Indian Manatee, Trichechus manatus

Japanese Macaque, Macaca fuscata

Celebes Crested Macaque, Macaca nigra

Gelada, Theropithecus gelada

Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris

Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

Spotted Seal, Phoca largha

Common Hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius

Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis

Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

Great White Pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus

Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

several waterfowl species

 

 


 South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea (Photo © Brian M. Hunt)

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri

Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

 


 Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus (Photo © Glen Tepke)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri

Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

 


 New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri (Photo © Arthur Chapman)

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis

 

 


 Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi (Photo © Alexander Meyer)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis (Photo © Nicolas Servera)

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri

 

 


 

 

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS - ODOBENIDAE

 

The list shows examples of species combinations with the walrus combined with the taxa below

 

 


 Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

 

 


 

 

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS - PHOCIDAE

 

The list shows examples of species combinations with at least one species of phocids combined with the taxa below

 

 


 Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris (Photo © Mike Baird)

Celebes Crested Macaque, Macaca nigra

Gelada, Theropithecus gelada

Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

 


 Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina (Photo © Cláudio Dias Timm)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus (Photo © Michael Haferkamp)

Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida

 

 


 Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

North American River Otter, Lontra canadensis

Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti

Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

 

 


 Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus (Photo © Virginia State Park)

Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus

Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida

 

 


 Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus

Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi

Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris

Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus

Domestic Sheep, Ovis aries

Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti

Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

White-tailed Sea-eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla

 

 


 Spotted Seal, Phoca largha (Photo © David Fudan)

California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

 


 Baikal Seal, Pusa sibirica (Photo © Sergey Gabdurakhmanov)

Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

 


 Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida (Photo © Jouni Koskela)

Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus

Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

 


 

 

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS - OTARIIDAE

 

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one species of otariids combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where these have been tried out

 

 


 

 

 California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Japanese Macaque, Macaca fuscata

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Celebes Crested Macaque, Macaca nigra
  • Gelada, Theropithecus gelada
  • Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
  • Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

 

Institution(s): Los Angeles Zoo (California, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

Institution(s): Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabárceno (Obregón, Cantabria, Spain)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa (Portugal), Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

 Institution(s):Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 Institution(s): Moody Gardens (Galveston, Texas, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

 

Institution(s): WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen (the Netherlands), Zoo Dortmund (Germany), Kölner Zoo (Germany)

 

Female California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and female South American Fur Seals (Arctocephalus australis)

WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen, the Netherlands

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

 Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain), Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld San Diego (California, United States of America)

 

Young California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Guadalupe Fur Seal (Arctocephalus townsendi)

SeaWorld San Diego, California, United States of America

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld San Antonio (Texas, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

Institution(s): Wilhelma Zoologisch-Botanischer Garten Suttgart (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Louisville Zoo (Kentucky, United States of America), Marineland (Antibes, France)

 

California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus)

Marineland, Antibes, France

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

 

Institution(s): Smithsonian National Zoological Park (Washington, DC, United States of America)

 

California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis)

Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, United States of America

Photo © Phyllis Wheeler

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld Orlando (Florida, United States of America), SeaWorld San Antonio (Texas, United States of America), SeaWorld Ohio (Aurora, Ohio, United States of America) (closed), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America), Denver Zoo (Colorado, United States of America), Louisville Zoo (Kentucky, United States of America), Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America), Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium (Tacoma, Washington, United States of America), Cleveland Metroparks Zoo (Ohio, United States of America), Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (California, United States of America), Ocean World (Crescent City, California, United States of America), Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands), SEA LIFE Blankenberge (Belgium)

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photo © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 

Several species of birds - like Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) - visit freely the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal mixed pool in Tiergarten Nürnberg

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photos © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

 

Institution(s): Fresno Chaffee Zoo (California, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America )

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Spotted Seal, Phoca largha

 

Institution(s): Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan (Japan)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Common Hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius
  • several waterfowl species

 

Institution(s): Longleat Safari Park (Warminster, United Kingdom)

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)

Longleat Safari Park, Warminster, United Kingdom

Photo © Keith Park

 

California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and Common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)

Longleat Safari Park, Warminster, United Kingdom

Photo © www.hiveminer.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Allwetterzoo Münster (Germany)

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photo © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis
  • Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

Institution(s): Allwetterzoo Münster (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • West Indian Manatee, Trichechus manatus
  • Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus
  • Great White Pelican, Pelecanus onocrotalus

 

Institution(s): Singapore Zoo (Singapore)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

Institution(s):  ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo (the Netherlands)

 

California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Black-footed Penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo, the Netherlands

Photo © Christopher Holland

 


 

 

 South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabárceno (Obregón, Cantabria, Spain)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa (Portugal), Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Riyadh Zoo (Saudi Arabia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

 

Institution(s): Mundo Marino - El Oceanario Más Grande De Sudamérica (San Clemente del Tuyu, Argentina)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Fur Seal, Arctocephalus sp.

 

Institution(s): Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World (Binhai, China)

 


 

 

 Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Riyadh Zoo (Saudi Arabia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Sea World Gold Coast (Southport, Queensland, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sunshine Coast Aquarium (Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri
  • Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

Institution(s): Dolphin Marine Magic (Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia)

 

Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) and Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Dolphin Marine Magic, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia

Photos © Nathan Edwards

 


 

 

 Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Vancouver Aquarium (British Columbia, Canada)

 


 

 

 Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Moody Gardens (Galveston, Texas, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Vancouver Aquarium (British Columbia, Canada)

 


 

 

 South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen (the Netherlands), Zoo Dortmund (Germany), Kölner Zoo (Germany)

 

Female South American Fur Seals (Arctocephalus australis) and female California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)

WILDLANDS Adventure Zoo Emmen, the Netherlands

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

Institution(s): Mundo Marino - El Oceanario Más Grande De Sudamérica (San Clemente del Tuyu, Argentina)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Sea World Gold Coast (Southport, Queensland, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany)

 

South American Fur Seals (Arctocephalus australis) and Walrus (the famous 'Antje') (Odobenus rosmarus), 1995

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany), SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

 

 Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain), Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain)

 

Male Afro-Australian Fur Seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and young Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)

Faunia, Madrid, Spain

Photo © Ignacio Barrio

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri
  • Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Borås Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Kolmårdens Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain), Aquazoo Löbbecke Museum (Düsseldorf, Germany), Taronga Zoo Sydney (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Fur Seal, Arctocephalus sp.
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

Institution(s): Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World (Binhai, China)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Common Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany)

 


 

 

 New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sunshine Coast Aquarium (Mooloolaba, Queensland, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

 

 Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld San Diego (California, United States of America)

 

Guadalupe Fur Seal (Arctocephalus townsendi), California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) mixed pool

SeaWorld San Diego, California, United States of America

Photo © Steve Hofhine

 


 

 

 Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Subantarctic Fur Seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • New Zealand Fur Seal, Arctocephalus forsteri
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea

 

Institution(s): SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

 

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS - ODOBENIDAE

 

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving the walrus combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where these have been tried out

 

 


 

 

 Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s):SeaWorld San Antonio (Texas, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

Institution(s): Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany)

 

Walrus (the famous 'Antje') (Odobenus rosmarus) and South American Fur Seals (Arctocephalus australis), 2000

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

Institution(s): Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany)

 

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus)

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium (Tacoma, Washington, United States of America), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

 

unknown institution

 

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

Photo © Rob Vuijsters

 


 

 

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS - PHOCIDAE

 

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one species of phocids combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where these have been tried out

 

 


 

 

 Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Northern Elephant Seal, Mirounga angustirostris
  • Celebes Crested Macaque, Macaca nigra
  • Gelada, Theropithecus gelada
  • Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

unknown institution

 


 

 

 Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Wilhelma Zoologisch-Botanischer Garten Stuttgart (Germany)

 

Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) and California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus), 1973

Wilhelma Zoologisch-Botanischer Garten Stuttgart, Germany

Photo © Alan Hill

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Enoshima Aquarium (Fujisawa, Japan)

 

Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) and Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina), 2005

Enoshima Aquarium, Fujisawa, Japan

Photo © www.reddit.com

 


 

 

 Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus
  • Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus
  • Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida

 

Institution(s): Oceánopolis (Brest, France)

 


 

 

 Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Arctic Fox, Alopex lagopus

 

Institution(s): New York Aquarium (Brooklyn, New York, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Louisville Zoo (Kentucky, United States of America), Marineland (Antibes, France)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

 

Institution(s): Smithsonian National Zoological Park (Washington, DC, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

Institution(s): Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

Institution(s): Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Riyadh Zoo (Saudi Arabia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

Institution(s): Borås Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany)

 

Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) and Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)

Tierpark Hagenbeck, Hamburg, Germany

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet – Sealarium (Esbjerg, Denmark), Skånes Djurpark (Höör, Sweden), Dolfinarium Harderwijk (the Netherlands), Seal Sanctuary and Wildlife Centre (Mablethorpe, United Kingdom), Los Angeles Zoo (California, United States of America), Adventure Aquarium (Camden, New Jersey, United States of America), ABQ BioPark (Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

Institution(s): Kolmårdens Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti

 

Institution(s): Kolmårdens Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • North American River Otter, Lontra canadensis

 

Institution(s): Los Angeles Zoo (California, United States of America)

 


 

 

 Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus
  • Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus
  • Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida

 

Institution(s): Oceánopolis (Brest, France)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus
  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

unknown institution

 


 

 

 Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld Orlando (Florida, United States of America), SeaWorld San Antonio (Texas, United States of America), SeaWorld Ohio (Aurora, Ohio, United States of America) (closed), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America), Denver Zoo (Colorado, United States of America), Louisville Zoo (Kentucky, United States of America), Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America), Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium (Tacoma, Washington, United States of America), Cleveland Metroparks Zoo (Ohio, United States of America), Six Flags Discovery Kingdom (California, United States of America), Ocean World (Crescent City, California, United States of America), Ocean Park Hong Kong (Aberdeen, Hong Kong), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands), SEA LIFE Blankenberge (Belgium)

 

Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) and California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)

Ocean World, Crescent City, California, United States of America

Photo © Scott Richardson

 

Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) and California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)

Ocean Park Hong Kong, Aberdeen, Hong Kong

Photo © Ocean Park Hong Kong

 

Several species of birds - like a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) - visit freely the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) and California Sea Lion mixed pool in Nürnberg

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photo © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia

 

Institution(s): Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa (Portugal), Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

Institution(s): Moody Gardens (Galveston, Texas, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Guadalupe Fur Seal, Arctocephalus townsendi

 

Institution(s): SeaWorld San Diego (California, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus
  • Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis

 

Institution(s): Fresno Chaffee Zoo (California, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Riyadh Zoo (Saudi Arabia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Australian Sea Lion, Neophoca cinerea
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

           

Institution(s): Sea World Gold Coast (Southport, Queensland, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Steller Sea Lion, Eumetopias jubatus

 

Institution(s): Vancouver Aquarium (British Columbia, Canada)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus

 

Institution(s): Vancouver Aquarium (British Columbia, Canada)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • South American Fur Seal, Arctocephalus australis

 

Institution(s): Tierpark Hagenbeck (Hamburg, Germany), SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain), Aquazoo Löbbecke Museum (Düsseldorf, Germany), Taronga Zoo Sydney (New South Wales, Australia)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Faunia (Madrid, Spain)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Afro-Australian Fur Seal, Arctocephalus pusillus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Kolmårdens Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus

 

Institution(s): Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium (Tacoma, Washington, United States of America), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, Illinois, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Walrus, Odobenus rosmarus
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Indianapolis Zoo (Indiana, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus

 

Institution(s): Fiskeri- og Søfartsmuseet – Sealarium (Esbjerg, Denmark), Skånes Djurpark (Höör, Sweden), Dolfinarium Harderwijk (the Netherlands), Seal Sanctuary and Wildlife Centre (Mablethorpe, United Kingdom), Los Angeles Zoo (California, United States of America), Adventure Aquarium (Camden, New Jersey, United States of America), ABQ BioPark (Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina

 

Institution(s): Enoshima Aquarium (Fujisawa, Japan)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus
  • Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti

 

Institution(s): Kolmårdens Djurpark (Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

 

unknown institution

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Sea Otter, Enhydra lutris

 

Institution(s): Franklin Park Zoo (Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus

 

Institution(s): København Zoo (Denmark)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Domestic Sheep, Ovis aries

 

Institution(s): Skånes Djurpark (Höör, Sweden)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

 

Institution(s): Georgia Aquarium (Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America ), Oceanogràfic de Valencia (Spain)

 

Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) and Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Photo © Georgia Aquarium

 

Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) and Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)

Georgia Aquarium, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Photo © Imogen Farris

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

Institution(s): Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert (Budapest, Hungary)

 

 

Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) and Black-footed Penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert, Budapest, Hungary

Photos © Krisztián Svábik

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti

 

Institution(s): Tierpark und Fossilium Bochum (Germany), Pairi Daiza (Brugelette, Belgium)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

 

Institution(s): Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Harbor Seal, Phoca vitulina
  • White-tailed Sea-eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla

 

Institution(s): Dierenrijk (Mierlo, the Netherlands)

 

Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) and White-tailed Sea-eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla)

Dierenrijk, Mierlo, the Netherlands

Photo © Ben Gilbert

 


 

 

 Spotted Seal, Phoca largha

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Spotted Seal, Phoca largha
  • California Sea Lion, Zalophus californianus

 

Institution(s): Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan (Japan)

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Spotted Seal, Phoca largha
  • Black-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

Institution(s): Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise (Japan)

 


 

 

 Baikal Seal, Pusa sibirica

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Baikal Seal, Pusa sibirica
  • Balck-footed Penguin, Spheniscus demersus

 

Institution(s): Zoo Leipzig (Germany)

 


 

 

 Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida

 

 


 

Combined species:

 

  • Ringed Seal, Pusa hispida
  • Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus
  • Harp Seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus

 

Institution(s): Oceánopolis (Brest, France)

 


 

SUMMARIZE THE EXPERIENCES

 


 

This document purposefully focuses on creating a list of mixed-species exhibits with family Otariidae, Odobenidae and Phocidae, for further and detailed information it is worth contacting the institutions mentioned above. Only a short summary of the general experiences is given here. Many of the listed coexistences are still ongoing at present; many of them are not anymore.

 

A good advice is to base the combination on the one existing in the wild: this is also very important to respect coherence between the zoological representation of the natural environment (GILI & MEIJER & LACAVE 2018).

In the wild many otariids share haul-out areas with other pinniped species, including species of phocids. In the Southern Ocean, multiple species of fur seals haul-out at the same sites, as do sea lions and fur seals, and many locations support colonies of Southern Elephant Seals and small number of species of Antarctic seals. In the North Pacific Ocean, Steller Sea Lions and Northern Fur Seals haul-out together, as do Steller Sea Lions and California Sea Lions. Six species – two sea lions, two fur seals and two phocids – co-occur, often in close proximity to each other on several central and southern California islands (WEBBER 2014).

Further example is that California Sea Lions, Harbor Seals and Sea Otters share the same habitat in the wild. The most frequent association with pinnipeds is the California Sea Lion & Harbor Seal combination, especially in the North American institutions, but the Harbor Seal & Sea Otter combination has also tried out at least in one zoological garden.

Tiergarten Nürnberg keeps California Sea Lion breeding group together with two female Harbor Seals which combination works without problem. In the enclosure by natural choice some bird species can be observed as well, like Grey Heron, Canada Goose and Mallard. The ducks bred an raised chicks. The young Sea Lions took the chicks under water and let them plop up to the surface – just for playing. The chicks survived this regular mistreatment (MÄGDEFRAU 2018, pers. comm.).

Parque da Cabarceno in Spain keeps together California Sea Lions (2.2) and South American Sea Lions (0.2) without any problems but it is worth mentioning that male Sea Lions are castrated (GALLEGO ALDAMA 2018, pers. comm.).

Zoo Dortmund kept their California Sea Lions (3.5) together with Afro-Australian Fur Seals (4.7) many years ago. Interspecific play was observed between young animals which is also a general experience of keeping different seal species together (HAMMER 2002).

Faunia in Madrid had California Sea Lions, Afro-Australian Fur Seals and Harbor Seals together three years ago. They were living all together without any problem. The staff did all the exhibitions with all of them together in the same pool and made training sessions as well. Even the reproduction with these species together was fine, the institution had calfs of Harbor Seals and Fur Seals, too (BARRIO 2018, pers, comm.).

Los Angeles Zoo kept their California Sea Lions (1.2) together with Capybaras some decades ago. The species swam and basked together. One adult female Capybara behaved aggressively against a newly naturalized young male Sea Lion which was taken out of the group (CROTTY 1981, HAMMER 2002).

An unknown institution has had a very complex combination with California Sea Lions, Northern Elephant Seal, Celebes Crested Macaques, Geladas and Capybaras. All the species kept in breeding group except the elephant seal (one female only). There was a pool with two islands on it, Macaques one one and Geladas on the other (THOMAS & MARUSKA 1996).

Tiergarten Nürnberg combined their California Sea Lion group (1.4) with Common Bottlenose Dolphin group (1.4) many years ago. The Sea Lions had opportunity for retreat. The species were separated during feeding and Sea Lions for rearing of young, too. Afro-Australian Fur Seals were also combined with the dolpins in Nürnberg but no interspecific interactions were observed (HAMMER 2002).

Although Sea Lions get on well with dolphins and it is a very attractive mixed exhibit, leading dolphin trainers recommend that for the Sea Lions enough exits off the water should be available. These ways of flight are necessary because dolphins are sometimes very rude while playing. In addition it is recommended that leading female Sea Lions with their offspring should be separated that long till the youngsters are quick enough to escape from the dolphins (HAMMER 2002).

Riyadh Zoo in Saudi Arabia combined two species of otariids with two species of phocids – South American Sea Lions (1.1), Australian Sea Lion (0.1), Grey Seals (1.2) and Harbor Seals (1.1) – together. The male South American Sea Lion was the dominant, but not aggressive during feeding time (HAMMER 2002).

 

Even the Walrus can be kept together with smaller species of seals, although it is known from the wild that Walruses chase seals (HAMMER 2002). The Walrus’s main source of food is benthic invertebrates, in large part, bivalve mollusks found in the sediment in high-density beds. Their diets are variously supplemented with amphipods, snails and soft-shelled crabs. It is worth mentioning that occasionally, Walruses hunt and eat Northern Fur Seals, Bearded Seals, Ringed Seals and Spotted Seals (STEWART 2014).

Zoo Hannover kept Walrus and Southern Elephant Seal together in the 1960s but both of the animals were young and sexually immature (MÜLLER-SCHILLING 2018, pers. comm.).

PUSCHMANN (1983) quotes examples of associations of a six years old Walrus with Sea Lions and Grey Seal as well.

 

According to Best Practice Guidelines for Otariidae and Phocidae Earless Seals can be better accommodated in a mixed exhibit than Eared Seals (GILI & MEIJER & LACAVE 2018).

Los Angeles Zoo kept their female Grey Seals (0.3) together with Nort American River Otters (2.2) some decades ago. First the otters avoided water but in the meantime they swam around the seals (CROTTY 1981, HAMMER 2002).

Harbor Seals have been maintained in some instances with female or young Grey Seals as males might be very aggressive towards the individuals of the smaller species. A strong attention should always pay to the dominance that can emerge during feeding time. For this reason it might be easier to base the combination on differences in dominance and combine aggressive with non-aggressive species (GILI & MEIJER & LACAVE 2018).

København Zoo kept their female Harbor Seals (0.3) together with a herd of Reindeer. The species were always together: it was possible for reindeer to cross stone barrier and drank from the seal pool. Reindeer sometimes swam in the seal pool (HAMMER 2002).

Dierenrijk in the Netherlands have kept together Harbor Seals and White-tailed Sea-eagles in a walk-through aviary for more than six years without problems. When the staff fed the seals the eagles stayed in the sitting tree. As the birds started to breed and with visitors in the same enclosure this was to dangerous the institution sent them away to an other zoo (RIJNEN 2018, pers. comm.).

 

In mixed-species exhibits with different species of pinnipeds together it should be thought of a danger of hybridisations. Scattered crossings already occured between Arctocephalus pusillus x Zalophus californianus, Halichoerus grypus x Pusa hispida (HAMMER 2002), Zalophus californianus x Otaria byronia (BRUNNER 2002), Callorhinus ursinus x Zalophus californianus (DUFFIELD 1999, MILLER et al. 1996), Eumetopias jubatus x Zalophus californianus (GORODEZKY 1995, MILLER et al. 1996), Arctocephalus australis x Otaria byronia (MILLER et al. 1996), Arctocephalus forsteri x Arctocephalus gazella (GOLDSWORTHY 1999, GOLDSWORTHY et al. 1998, 1999, SHAUGHNESSY et al. 1998.), Arctocephalus forsteri x Arctocephalus tropicalis (GALES et al. 1992, SHAUGHNESSY 1992), Arctocephalus gazella x Arctocephalus tropicalis (GALES et al. 1992, GOLDSWORTHY et al. 1998, 1999, GUINET et al. 1994, St. CLAIR HILL et al. 2001, WYNEN et al. 2001), Arctocephalus townsendi x Callorhinus ursinus (JAMEYSON et al. 1981), Pagophilus groenlandicus x Cystophora cristata (KOVACS et al. 1997), Halichoerus grypus x Pusa hispida (LÖNNBERG 1929, MOHR 1940), Phoca largha x Phoca vitulina (KATSUMATA et al. 2003).

 


 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 


 

I would like to thank all the persons very much who helped to improve this short summary with providing information and photographs as well, in particulare:

 

Brian AUCONE Senior Vice President for Animal Sciences (Denver Zoo, Colorado, United States of America), Ignacio BARRIO Marine Mammal Head Keeper (Faunia, Madrid, Spain), Isabelle BRASSEUR (Marineland, Antibes, France), Beatriz GALLEGO ALDAMA Curator (Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabárceno, Obregón, Cantabria, Spain), Stephen LAI Curator of Marine Mammals (Ocean Park Hong Kong, Aberdeen, Hong Kong), Agustin LOPEZ GOYA Curator (Faunia, Madrid, Spain), Dr. Helmut MÄGDEFRAU Director (Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany), Klaus MÜLLER-SCHILLING Curator (Erlebnis – Zoo Hannover, Germany), Stephan RIJNEN Curator (Dierenrijk, Mierlo, the Netherlands), Brian SHEEHAN Curator of Marine Mammals/Amazon (Vancouver Aquarium, British Columbia, Canada)

 

As well as I would like to thank all the persons very much who helped to improve this document with providing further photographs, their names are listed below:

 

Mike BAIRD, Arthur CHAPMAN, Cláudio DIAS TIMM, Nathan EDWARDS, Imogen FARRIS, David FUDAN, Sergey GABDURAKHMAN, Ben GILBERT, Michael HAFERKAMP, Simon HAMPEL, Alan HILL, Steve HOFHINE, Cristopher HOLLAND, Jouni KOSKELA, Alexander MEYER, Brian M. HUNT, Scott RICHARDSON, Nicolas SERVERA, Glen TEPKE, Rob VUIJSTERS, Phyllis WHEELER

 


 

REFERENCES

 


 

BRUNNER, S. 1998. Skull development and growth in the southern fur seals Arctocephalus forsteri and A. pusillus doriferus (Carnivora: Otariidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 46: 43-66.

 

BRUNNER, S. 2002. A Probable Hybrid Sea Lion – Zalophus Californianus × Otaria Byronia. Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 83, Issue 1, Pp. 135-144.

 

CROTTY, M. 1981. Mixed species exhibits at the Los Angeles Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 21: Pp. 203-206.

 

DUFFIELD, D. A. 1999. Examples of captive hybridisation and a genetic point of view. European Research on Cetaceans, 12: 421-422.

 

GALES, N. J., COUGHRAN, D. K., QUEALE, L. F. 1992. Records of subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis in Australia. Australian mammalogy, 15: 135-138.

 

GILI, C., MEIJER, G. & LACAVE, G. 2018. EAZA and EAAM Best Practice Guidelines for Otariidae and Phocidae (Pinnipeds). Acquario di Genova, Genova, Italy

 

GOLDSWORTHY, S. D. 1999. Maternal attendance behaviour of sympatrically breeding Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island. Polar Biology, 21: 316-325.

 

GOLDSWORTHY, S. D., BONESS, D. J., FLEISCHER, R. C. 1999. Mate choice among sympatric fur seals: Female preference for conphenotypic males. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 45: 253-267.

 

GOLDSWORTHY, S. D., WYNEN, L., ROBINSON, S., SHAUGHNESSY, P. D. 1998. The population status and hybridization of three sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.) at Macquarie Island. VII SCAR international Biology Symposium. Abstracts Handbook, New Zealand Natural Sciences, 23: 68.

 

GORODEZKY, L. 1995. Hybrid sea lion is suspected in Castle Rock killings. Alokoy (Channel Islnds National Marine Sanctuary, Santa Barbara, California), 8: 10-11.

 

GUINET, C., JOUVENTIN, P., GEORGES, J.-Y. 1994. Long term population changes of fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis on subantarctic (Crozet) and subtropical (St. Paul and Amsterdam) islands and their possible relationship to El Nino Southern Oscillation. Antarctic Science, 6(4): 473-478.

 

HAMMER, G. 2002. Mixed species exhibits involved mammals: stock report and problems. Dissertation. Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Salzburg.

 

JAMEYSON, E. D., DUFFIELD, D. A., CORNELL, L. H., ANTONELLIS, G., DELONG, R. L. 1981. Discovery of a Callorhinus ursinus × ? hybrid within the San Miguel Island population. Fourth Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. San Francisco, CA.

 

KATSUMATA, E., HORI, T., TSUTSUI, T. 2003. Contraceptive effect of proligestone on Spotted Seals and crossbreeds of Spotted Seals and Harbor Seals. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 65: 619-623.

 

KOVACS, K. M., LYDERSEN, C., HAMMILL, M. O, WHITE, B. N., WILSON, P. J., MALIK, S. 1997. A harp seal × hooded seal hybrid. Marine Mammal Science, 13: 460-468.

 

LÖNNBERG, E. 1929. A hybrid between Grey Seal, Halichoerus grypus Nils. and Baltic Ringed Seal, Phoca hispida annellata Nils. Arkiv för Zoologi, 21 A, no. 5.

 

MCCARTHY, E. M. 2013. Mammalian Hybrids. www.macroevolution.net/mammalian-hybrids.html

 

MILLER, E. H., PONCE DE LEÓN, A. & DELONG, R. L. 1996. Violent interspecific sexual behaviour by male sea lions (Otariidae): Evolutionary and phylogenetic implications. Marine Mammal Science, 12: 468-476.

 

MOHR, E. 1940. Bemerkungen über Seehund, Ringel- und Kegelrobbe. Der Zoologische Garten (Leipzig), 12: 173-182.

 

PUSCHMANN, W. 1983. Wildtiere in Menschenhand; Band Säugetiere. VEB- Dt. Landwirtschaftsverlag Berlin.

 

SHAUGHNESSY, P. D. 1992. New mammals recognized for Australia — Antarctic and Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus species. Australian Mammalogy, 15: 77-80.

SHAUGHNESSY, P. D., ADAMS, M, GOLDSWORTHY, S. D. 1998. Hybridization of southern fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island based on allozyme analysis. VII SCAR International Biology symposium. Abstracts Handbook, New Zealand Natural Sciences, 23: 182.

 

St. CLAIR HILL, M., FERGUSON, J. W. H., BESTER, M. N., KERLEY, G. I. H. 2001. Preliminary comparison of calls of the hybridizing fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella. African Zoology. 36: 45-53.

 

STEWART, B. S. 2014. Family Odobenidae (Walrus). Pp. 102-119. In: Wilson, D.E. & Mittermeier, R.A. (eds) 2014. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 4. Sea Mammals, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

THOMAS, W. D. & MARUSKA, E. J. 1996. Mixed-species Exhibits with Mammals. In: Kleiman, D. G., Allen, M. E., Thompson, K. V. & Lumpkin, S. (eds) 1996.  Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Pp. 204-211.

 

WEBBER, M. A. 2014. Family Otariidae (Eared Seals). Pp. 34-101. In. Wilson, D.E. & Mittermeier, R.A. (eds) 2014. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 4. Sea Mammals, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

WYNEN, L. P., GOLDSWORTHY, S. D., INSLEY, S. J., ADAMS, M., BICKHAM, J. W., FRANCIS, J., GALLO, J. P., HOELZEL, A. R., MAJLUF, P., WHITE, R. W. G., SLADE, R. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within the eared seals (Otariidae: Carnivora): Implications for the historical biogeography of the family. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 21: 270-284.

 

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