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Európa  állatkertjei

 

 

MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH CARNIVORANS II.

 

 

Mixed-species exhibits with Mongooses (Herpestidae) and Madagascar Carnivores (Eupleridae)

 

 

Written by KRISZTIÁN SVÁBIK

Assistant Curator, Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden

 

Uploaded: April 2018

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

 


 

Currently, there are 34 species of mongooses described in the family Herpestidae, although further taxonomic research may lead to this number changing in the future. Twenty-five members of the taxon live in Africa, and nine in Asia. According to the current subdivision of Herpestidae, ― using not only morphology, but also behavioural ecology and molecular markers ― two subfamilies are supported within the taxon. The subfamily Herpestinae involves 23, mostly large and solitary mongoose species (genus Atilax, Bdeogale, Cynictis, Galerella, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Paracynictis, Rhynchogale, Xenogale), while the subfamily Mungotinae comprises 11, mainly small and social species (genus Crossarchus, Dologale, Helogale, Liberiictis, Mungos, Suricata) (GILCHRIST, J. S, JENNINGS, A. P., VERON, G. & CAVALLINI, P. 2009).

 

In the list below, you can see which species have been kept in mixed exhibits in captivity. Due to the similarities in morphology and lifestyle, two additional species from family Eupleridae - the Ring-tailed Vontsira (Galidia elegans) and the Narrow-striped Boky (Mungotictis decemlineata) - are also mentioned here (recent placement of this taxon is: family Eupleridae, Madagascar Carnivores, subfamily Galidiinae, Mongoose-like Madagascar Carnivores).

 

Mongooses, Herpestidae

 

Meerkat, Suricata suricatta Schreber, 1776
Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula Sundevall, 1847
Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo Gmelin, 1788
Gambian Mongoose, Mungos gambianus Ogilby, 1835
Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus F.G. Cuvier, 1825

Common Slender Mongoose, Galerella sanguinea Rüppell, 1835
White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Marsh Mongoose, Atilax paludinosus G.B. Cuvier, 1829
Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon Linnaeus, 1758
Indian Grey Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818

 

Madagascar Carnivores, Eupleridae

 

Ring-tailed Vontsira, Galidia elegans I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837

Narrow-striped Boky, Mungotictis decemlineata A. Grandidier, 1867

 

 


 

Mutualism, as a new concept of mixed-species exhibitry

 


 

 

Social species often display an impressive level of cooperation such as babysitting youngsters or predator perception and deterrence; but interspecific cooperation also occurs within the taxon Herpestidae.
Common Cusimanses have been observed playing with Mona Monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). Liberian Mongooses (Liberiictis kuhni) are often found in association with Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and flee in response to the primates’ anti-predator warning calls. Banded Mongooses also respond with increased vigilance to the alarm calls of several other species, particularly Plovers (Vanellus spp.), Meerkats respond to the warning calls of Fork-tailed Drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis), and Southern Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas). It is worth mentioning that Fork-tailed Drongos are capable of using deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food from different birds and meerkats (kleptoparasitism).
Cape Grey Mongooses (Galerella pulverulenta) have been observed to associate with small raptors, such as African Marsh Harriers (Circus ranivorus) during foraging.
The Yellow Mongoose was observed in cooperative vigilance with a group of Meerkats. Meerkats are excellent diggers and excavate dens themselves, but usually occupy dens dug by other small mammals. These shelters may be shared with Yellow Mongooses and South African Ground Squirrels (Xerus inauris).
Furthermore, in some cases we can speak about real mutualistic relationships. Common Dwarf Mongooses in the Taru desert region of Kenya form foraging communities with a variety of endemic bird species, especially the Von der Decken’s Hornbill (Tockus deckeni), the Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus flavirostris) and the Red-billed Hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus). This mutualistic association between the birds and the small mammals is actively sought by both parties, so both the hornbills and the mongooses seek each other out in order to forage together and warn each other of nearby raptors and other predators.
Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) have learned to lie down in the presence of banded mongooses. In response, the mongooses have learned to inspect the warthogs for ticks, groom them, remove and eat ectoparasites.
These mutualistic relationships have served as a base for creating mixed-species exhibits with the given mongoose species in captivity: Banded Mongoose & Common Warthog coexistence has been tried out in Chester Zoo (United Kingdom); Common Dwarf Mongoose & Hornbill (Tockus spp.) combination has been created in Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Bronx Zoo (New York, USA), Dallas Zoo (USA), Oregon Zoo (USA) and Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (USA).

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and Von der Decken's Hornbill (Tockus deckeni)

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria

Photo © Petra Urbanek

 

Banded Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus)

Chester Zoo, United Kingdom

Photo © Christopher Holland

 


 

 

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS - HERPESTIDAE

 

The list shows examples of species combinations with at least one herpestid species combined with the taxa below

 

 


Meerkat, Suricata suricatta (Photo © Anita Mazács)

Aardvark, Orycteropus afer

Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

African Elephant, Loxodonta africana

Thick-tailed Greate Galago, Otolemur crassicaudatus

Ring-tailed Lemur, Lemur catta

Red-chested mustached tamarin, Saguinus labiatus

Grivet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

Sykes’s monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis

King Colobus, Colobus polykomos

Guinea Baboon, Papio papio

Hamadryas Baboon, Papio hamadryas

Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus

South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

Crested Porcupine, Hystix cristata

Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica

African Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus africanus

Lion, Panthera leo

Aardwolf, Proteles cristatus

Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo

Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula

Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda

Plains Zebra, Equus quagga burchellii

Grevy's Zebra, Equus grevyi

Common Warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus

Guenther's Dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri

Kirk's Dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii

Kafue Lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis

Black Wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou

Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis

Helmeted Guineafowl, Numida meleagris

Blue Crane, Grus paradisea

Von der Decken’s hornbill, Tockus deckeni

Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Red-crested Turaco, Tauraco erythrolophus

Pelican sp., Pelecanus sp.

African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

 


Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

Crested Porcupine, Hystix cristata

Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica

Lion, Panthera leo

Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda

Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

Blue Crane, Grus paradisea

African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

 


Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula (Photo © Anita Mazács)

Aardvark, Orycteropus afer

Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

Bush Hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei

Garnett's Greater Galago, Otolemur garnettii

South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus

Kirk's Dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii

Von der Decken's Hornbill, Tockus deckeni

Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Jackson's Hornbill, Tockus jacksoni

Red-cheeked cordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus

Violet-backed Starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster

Yellow-crowned Bishop, Euplectes afer

African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus

West African Crocodile, Crocodylus suchus

African Cichlids, Cichlidae

 

 


Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

Grivet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

Colobus sp., Colobus sp.

Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx

Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

Common Warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

 


Gambian Mongoose, Mungos gambianus (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

Black Vulture, Aegypius monachus

Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus

Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus

Himalayan Griffon Vulture, Gyps himalayensis

Rüppell's Vulture, Gyps rueppelli

Hooded Vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus

Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius

Trumpeter Hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator

Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis

 

 


Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus (Photo © Alan Hill)

Blue-eyed Black Lemur, Eulemur flavifrons

Diana Monkey, Cercopithecus diana

Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

African Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus africanus

 

 


Common Slender Mongoose, Galerella sanguinea (Photo © Krisztián Svábik)

Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

 


White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda (Photo © Larry Jackson)

Northern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

 

 


 Marsh Mongoose, Atilax paludinousus (Photo © Jonas Livet)

Eastern Black-and-white Colobus, Colobus guereza

 

 


 Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon (Photo © Anna Liflyand)

White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

 

 


Indian Grey Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii (Photo © Aniketan Math)

Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta

Dwarf Goat, Capra hircus

 

 


 

 

LIST OF SPECIES COMBINATIONS - EUPLERIDAE

 

The list shows examples of species combinations with at least one euplerid species combined with the taxa below

 

 


Ring-tailed Vontsira, Galidia elegans (Photo © Brian Gratwicke)

Northern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

 


Narrow-striped Boky, Mungotictis decemlineata (Photo © Tamás Boros)

Crowned Lemur, Eulemur coronatus

Malagasy Giant Jumping Rat, Hypogeomys antimena

 

 


 

 

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS - HERPESTIDAE

 

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one herpestid species combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where they have been tried out

 

 


 

 

Herpestids with herpestids (Photo © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau)

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

 

Institution(s): ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium), Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom), Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom), Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland), Tierpark Nordhorn (Germany), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Tierpark Hamm (Germany), Tierpark Ströhen (Wagenfeld, Germany),Tiergarten Delitzsch (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata)

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photo © Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Blue Crane, Grus paradisea

 

Institution(s): Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystix cristata

 

Institution(s): Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis pemnicillata
  • Lion, Panthera leo

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula

 

Institution(s): Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon
  • White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

 

Institution(s): Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)

 


 

 

Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

 

Institution(s): ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium), Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom), Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom), Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland), Tierpark Nordhorn (Germany), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Tierpark Hamm (Germany), Tierpark Ströhen (Wagenfeld, Germany),Tiergarten Delitzsch (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)

 

Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) and Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata)

Yorkshire Wildlife Park, United Kingdom

Photo © Christopher Holland

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Blue Crane, Grus paradisea

 

Institution(s): Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystix cristata

 

Institution(s): Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Lion, Panthera leo

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Institution(s): ZOO Dvůr Králové (Czech Republic), Korkeasaari Zoo (Helsinki, Finland)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • European Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus citellus

 

Institution(s): RZSS Edinburgh Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula

 

Institution(s): Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Lion, Panthera leo

 

Institution(s): Colchester Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

 

Institution(s): Reaseheath Zoo (Nantwich, United Kingdom), San Diego Zoo (United States of America), World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary and Monkey Park (Cape Town, South African Republic)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Aardwolf, Proteles cristatus
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): Phoenix Zoo (United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • African Elephant, Loxodonta africana

 

Institution(s): Jardim Zoológico de Lisboa (Portugal)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
  • Plains Zebra, Equus quagga burchellii
  • Kafue Lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis

 

Institution(s): Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Grevy's Zebra, Equus grevyi
  • Black Wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou
  • Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris
  • Pelican, Pelecanus sp.

 

Institution(s): ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo (the Netherlands)

 

Former mixed exhibit with Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and hoofed mammals

ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo, the Netherlands

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris
  • Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

 

Institution(s): Zoo Basel (Switzerland)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Common Warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

 

Institution(s): Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands)

 

Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) and Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) mixed exhibit

Ouwehands Dierenpark, Rhenen, the Netherlands

Photo © Gabriella Mótyán

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

 

Institution(s): Pairi Daiza (Brugelette, Belgium)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus

 

Institution(s): Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo & Aquarium (United States of America)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Klipspringers (Oreotragus oreotragus)

Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo & Aquarium, United States of America

Photo © Scott Richardson

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Guenther's Dik-dik, Madoqua guentheri

 

Institution(s): Disney’s Animal Kingdom (Orlando, United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Kirk's Dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii

 

Institution(s): Dallas Zoo (United States of America)

 


:Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis

 

Institution(s): ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis
  • Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis
  • African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica

 

Institution(s): Jászberényi Állat- és Növénykert (Hungary), Gyöngyösi Állatkert és Szabadidőpark (Hungary), Opel-Zoo (Kronberg, Germany), Zoo Hoyerswerda (Germany), Allwetterzoo Münster (Germany), Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica

GaiaZOO, Kerkrade, the Netherlands

Photo © GaiaZOO

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) feeding

Jászberényi Állat- és Növénykert, Hungary

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): Folly Farm Adventure Park and Zoo (Kilgetty, Unoted Kingdom), Tropical Butterfly House Wildlife And Falconry Centre (North Anston, United Kingdom), Zoo Basel (Switzerland), North Carolina Zoo (Asheboro, United States of America), Wellington Zoo (New Zealand)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

 

Institution(s): Askham Bryan Wildlife & Conservation Park (United Kingdom), Belfast Zoo (United Kingdom), Chester Zoo (United Kingdom), Reaseheath Zoo (Nantwich, United Kingdom), Northumberland Country Zoo (Morpeth, United Kingdom), Flamingo Land (Malton, United Kingdom), Paignton Zoo Environmental Park (United Kingdom), Combe Martin Wildlife & Dinosaur Park (Ilfracombe, United Kingdom), Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens (Burford, United Kingdom), Longleat Safari Park (Warminster, United Kingdom) (walk-through), Welsh Mountain Zoo (Colwyn Bay, United Kingdom), København Zoo (Denmark), Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, United States of America), Pueblo Zoo (United States of America), Calgary Zoo (Kanada), Monarto Zoo (Australia)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • African Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus africanus

 

Institution(s): Brookfield Zoo (Chicago, United States of America), North Carolina Zoo (Asheboro, United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Cape porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis
  • African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Diergaarde Blijdorp (Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

 

Institution(s)): Zoo Dresden (Germany), Rīgas Nacionālais zooloģiskais dārzs (Latvia), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands), Oglebay Good Zoo (Wheeling, United States of America), Hogle Zoo (Salt Lake City, United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): Zoo Basel (Switzerland)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • African Surred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert (Budapest, Hungary), Bioparc Valéncia (Spain), Nahariya Botanic Garden and Zoo (Israel), Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom), Reptilium Terrarien- und Wüstenzoo (Landau in der Pfalz, Germany)

 

Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) and African Spurred Tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata

Bioparc Valéncia, Spain

Photo © Xavier Bayod Farré

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and African Spurred Tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata)

Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert, Budapest, Hungary

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Black-necked Weaver, Ploceus nigricollis
  • African Surred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Tropikariet Helsingborg (Sweden)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Aardvark, Orycteropus afer

 

Institution(s): Chester Zoo (United Kingdom), ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom), Blackpool Zoo (United Kingdom), Africa Alive! (Kessingland, United Kingdom), Philadelpia Zoo (United States of America)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Aardvarks (Orycteropus afer

ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom

Photos © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
  • Thick-tailed Greater Galago, Otolemur crassicaudatus
  • African Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus africanus

 

Institution(s): Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium (United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Red-chested Mustached Tamarin, Saguinus labiatus

 

Institution(s): Shepreth Wildlife Park (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

 

Institution(s): Zoo d'Amnéville (France), Zoo Opole (Poland)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla
  • Sykes' Monkey, Cercopithecus albogularis

 

Institution(s): ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo (the Netherlands)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo, the Netherlands

Photos © Arjan Haverkamp

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla
  • Red-crested Turaco, Tauraco erythrolophus

 

Institution(s): Ouwehands Dierenpark (Rhenen, the Netherlands)

 

Meerkat (Suricata suricatta) and Red-crested Turaco (Tauraco erythrolophus) inside the gorilla indoor exhibit

Ouwehands Dierenpark, Rhenen, the Netherlands

Photo © Gabriella Mótyán

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Ring-tailed Lemur, Lemur catta

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Grivet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • King Colobus, Colobus polykomos

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and King Colobus (Colobus polykomos)

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria

Photo © Jutta Kirchner

 

Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and King Colobus (Colobus polykomos) mixed indoor exhibit

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Hamadryas Baboon, Papio hamadryas

 

Institution(s): Skansen-Akvariet (Stockholm, Sweden)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Guinea Baboon, Papio papio

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Von der Decken's Hornbill, Tockus deckeni

 

Institution(s): Smithsonian National Zoological Park (Washington, United States of America)

 


 

 

Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

 

Institution(s): ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium), Yorkshire Wildlife Park (Doncaster, United Kingdom), Kirkleatham Owl Centre (Redcar, United Kingdom), Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom), Knies Kinderzoo (Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland), Tierpark Nordhorn (Germany), Tierpark Hamm (Germany), Tierpark Ströhen (Wagenfeld, Germany), Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Tiergarten Delitzsch (Germany), GaiaZOO (Kerkrade, the Netherlands)

 

 

Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and Meerkat (Suricata suricatta)

GaiaZOO, Kerkrade, the Netherlands and Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photos © GaiaZOO and Dr. Helmut Mägdefrau

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Blue Crane, Grus paradisea

Institution(s): Five Sisters Zoo Park (West Calder, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Közönséges tarajossül, Hystix cristata

 

Institution(s): Woburn Safari Park (Milton Keynes, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Lion, Panthera leo

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Schwerin (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta
  • Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Lion, Panthera leo

 

Institution(s): Zoo Basel (Switzerland), ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

 

Institution(s): ZOO Antwerpen (Belgium)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

 

Institution(s): ZOO Dvůr Králové (Czech Republic), Fővárosi Állat- és Növénykert (Budapest, Hungary)

 

 

Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) mixed outdoor exhibit

ZOO Dvůr Králové, Czech Republic

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

 

Institution(s): Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

 

Institution(s): Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): ZSL London Zoo (United Kingdom)

 

Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata) mixed exhibit

ZSL London Zoo, United Kingdom

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica

 

Institution(s): Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands), Zoo de Lille (France), Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac (France)

 

Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica)

Dierenpark Zie-ZOO, Volkel, the Netherlands

Photo © John de Greef

 


Combined species:

 

  • Yellow Mongoose, Cynictis penicillata
  • African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Abenteuerland Walter Zoo (Gossau, Switzerland)

 


 

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Coomon Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

 

Institution(s): Borth Wild Animal Kingdom (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis

 

Institution(s): Zoo des Sables d'Olonne (France)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Bush Hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei

 

Institution(s): Zoo Frankfurt (Germany)

 

Common Dwarf Mongooses (Helogale parvula) and Bush Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei)

Zoo Frankfurt, Germany

Photo © Nicolas Brüning

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis
  • Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Institution(s): San Diego Zoo (United States of America)

 

 

Common Dwarf Mongooses (Helogale parvula), Rock Hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and Klipspringers (Oreotragus oreotragus) in the famous Kopje-exhibit

San Diego Zoo, United States of America

Photos © Alex Kantorovich és Curby Simerson

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus
  • Violet-backed Starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
  • Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer
  • Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus
  • African Cichlids, Cichlidae

 

Institution(s): Zoo Basel (Switzerland)

 

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) mixed exhibit with free-flight birds and African Cichlids inside the Gamgoas House at Basel

Zoo Basel, Switzerland

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • West African Crocodile, Crocodylus suchus

 

Institution(s): AQUATIS Aquarium-Vivarium (Lausanne, Switzerland)

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and West African Crocodile (Crocodylus suchus)

AQUATIS Aquarium-Vivarium, Lausanne, Switzerland

Photo © Fabian Schmidt

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Garnett's Greater Galago, Otolemur garnettii

 

Institution(s): Zoologická zahrada hl. m. Prahy (Czech Republic)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris

 

Institution(s): Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg (Germany)

 

Common Dwarf Mongooses (Helogale parvula) and South African Ground Squirrel (Xerus inauris)

Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg, Germany

Photo © www.zoochat.com

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Cape Porcupine, Hystrix africaeaustralis

 

Institution(s): Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens (Burford, United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
  • several free-flight African bird species

 

Institution(s): ZOO Wrocław (Poland)

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) mixed exhibit with several free-flight birds - Hadada Ibises (Bostrychia hagedash) in the picture - inside the Afrykarium at Wrocław

ZOO Wrocław, Poland

Photos © Krisztián Svábik


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Aardvark, Orycteropus afer
  • South African Ground Squirrel, Xerus inauris
  • Kirk’s Dik-dik, Madoqua kirkii
  • several free-flight African bird species

 

Institution(s) with this coexistence: ZOO Wrocław (Poland)

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and South African Ground Squirrels (Xerus inauris)

ZOO Wrocław, Poland

Photo © Örs Görög

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany), Oregon Zoo (Portland, United States of America)

 

Common Dwarf Mongooses (Helogale parvula) and Red-billed Hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus)

Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany

Photo © Tiergarten Nürnberg

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Jackson's Hornbill, Tockus jacksoni

 

Institution(s): Dallas Zoo (United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • Von der Decken's Hornbill, Tockus deckeni

 

Institution(s): Bronx Zoo (New York, United States of America), Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (Sioux Falls, United States of America), Tiergarten Schönbrunn (Vienna, Austria)

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and Von der Decken's Hornbill (Tockus deckeni)

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria

Photo © Petra Urbanek

 

Common Dwarf Mongoose (Helogale parvula) and Von der Decken's Hornbill (Tockus deckeni) mixed indoor exhibit inside the East Africa House at Vienna

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Dwarf Mongoose, Helogale parvula
  • African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata

 

Institution(s): Uilen- en Dierenpark „de Paay” (Beesd, the Netherlands)

 


 

 

Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Meerkat, Suricata suricatta

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): Denver Zoo (United States of America)

 

Banded Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Crested Porcupine (Hystrix cristata)

Denver Zoo, United States of America

Photo © Brian Aucone

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Mandrill, Mandrillus sphinx

 

Institution(s): Zoo Dresden (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Grivet Monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops

 

Institution(s): Parco Natura Viva (Bussolengo, Italy)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Colobus, Colobus sp.

 

Unknown institution

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Common Warthog, Phacochoerus africanus

 

Institution(s): Chester Zoo (United Kingdom)

 

Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo) and Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)

Chester Zoo, United Kingdom

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 

 

Bande Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) interactive behaviour

Chester Zoo, United Kingdom

Photos © Christopher Holland and Alan Hill

 

Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo) and Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) mixed exhibit

Chester Zoo, United Kingdom

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Red River Hog, Potamochoerus porcus

 

Institution(s): Safaripark Beekse Bergen (Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands)

 

Banded Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Red River Hog (Potamochoerus porcus)

Safaripark Beekse Bergen, Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands

Photo © Örs Görög

 

Banded Mongooses (Mungos mungo) and Red River Hogs (Potamochoerus porcus)

Safaripark Beekse Bergen, Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands

Photo © Maarten de Ruiter

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Red-billed Hornbill, Tockus erythrorhynchus

 

Institution(s): Tiergarten Nürnberg (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Banded Mongoose, Mungos mungo
  • Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

Institution(s): Tropicarium Kolmården (Sweden)

 


 

 

 Gambian Mongoose, Mungos gambianus

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Gambian Mongoose, Mungos gambianus
  • Black Vulture, Aegypius monachus
  • Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus
  • Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus
  • Himalayan Griffon Vulture, Gyps himalayensis
  • Rüppell's Vulture, Gyps rueppelli
  • Hooded Vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus
  • Secretarybird, Sagittarius serpentarius
  • Trumpeter Hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator
  • Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis

 

Institution(s): ZOO a zámek Zlín-Lešná (Czech Republic)

 

Walk-through vulture aviary where ground level is inhabited by Gambian Mongooses (Mungos gambianus)

ZOO a zámek Zlín-Lešná, Czech Republic

Photo © Krisztián Svábik

 


 

 

Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata
  • Blue-eyed Black Lemur, Eulemur flavifrons

 

Institution(s): Memphis Zoo (United States of America)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
  • Crested Porcupine, Hystrix cristata

 

Institution(s): Shepreth Wildlife Park (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
  • African Brush-tailed Porcupine, Atherurus africanus

 

Institution(s): Paignton Zoo Environmental Park (United Kingdom)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Cusimanse, Crossarchus obscurus
  • Diana Monkey, Cercopithecus diana

 

Institution(s): Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)

 


 

 

Common Slender Mongoose, Galerella sanguinea

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Common Slender Mongoose, Galerella sanguinea
  • Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis
  • African Spurred Tortoise, Centrochelys sulcata
  • Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

Institution(s): Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)

 


 

 

White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
  • Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

 

Institution(s): Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)

 

White-tailed Mongoose (Ichneumia albicauda) and Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) mixed exhibit

Samjung The Park, Busan, South Korea

Photo © Alex Kantorovich

 


Combined species:

 

  • White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
  • Northern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

 

Institution(s): Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda
  • Western Lowland Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla

 

Institution(s): Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


 

 

 Marsh Mongoose, Atilax paludinousus

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Marsh Mongoose, Atilax paludinosus
  • Eastern Black-and-white Colobus, Colobus guereza

 

Institution(s): Randers Regnskov (Denmark)

 

Marsh Mongoose (Atilax paludinosus) and Eastern Black-and-white Colobus (Colobus guereza) former mixed exhibit

Randers Regnskov, Denmark

Photo © Kåre Jensen

 


 

 

 Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Egyptian Mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon
  • White-tailed Mongoose, Ichneumia albicauda

 

Institution(s): Samjung The Park (Busan, South Korea)

 


 

 

Indian Grey Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Indian Grey Mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii
  • Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta
  • Dwarf Goat, Capra hircus

 

Institution(s): Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 

Indian Grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) and Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) with an enrichment tool filled with food

Zoo Heidelberg, Germany

Photo © York von Selasinksy

 


 

 

LIST OF MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH LOCATIONS - EUPLERIDAE

 

The list shows specific examples of mixed-species exhibits involving at least one madagascar carnivore species combined with the taxa below, with indication of the institution(s) where they have been tried out

 

 


 

 

Ring-tailed Vontsira, Galidia elegans

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Ring-tailed Vontsira, Galidia elegans
  • Northern Plains Gray Langur, Semnopithecus entellus

 

Institution(s): Zoo Heidelberg (Germany)

 


Combined species:

 

  • Ring-tailed Vontsira, Galidia elegans
  • Leopard Tortoise, Stigmochelys pardalis

 

Institution(s): Dierenpark Zie-Zoo (Volkel, the Netherlands)

 


 

 

Narrow-striped Boky, Mungotictis decemlineata

 

 


Combined species:

 

  • Narrow-striped Boky, Mungotictis decemlineata
  • Crowned Lemur, Eulemur coronatus

 

Institution(s): Newquay Zoo (United Kingdom)

 

Narrow-striped Boky (Mungotictis decemlineata) and Crowned Lemur (Eulemur coronatus) mixed exhibit

Newquay Zoo, United Kingdom

Photo © Owen Taylor

 


Combined species:

 

  • Narrow-striped Boky, Mungotictis decemlineata
  • Malagasy Giant Jumping Rat, Hypogeomys antimena

 

Unknown institution

 


 

SUMMARIZE THE EXPERIENCES

 


 

This document purposefully focuses on creating a list of mixed-species exhibits with family Herpestidae and Eupleridae, for further and detailed information it is worth contacting the institutions mentioned above. Only a short summary of the general experiences is given here. Many of the listed coexistences are still ongoing at present; many of them are not anymore.

 

Mongooses

 

In reference to exhibiting different mongoose species in the same enclosure the most frequent is the Meerkat & Yellow Mongoose combination. The two species also have a co-occurence in their distribution area in nature. Adult specimens of both species can be dangerous for the other taxa's subadult individuals. The mixed exhibit for the two species did not work for breeding of Meerkats at Tiergarten Nürnberg. The mongooses killed and fed the young Meerkats after leaving the burrow. After that they have had to separate the species for some two months due to raise the young Meerkats. When the colony of Meerkats grew up to some 15 individuals, they expected they should be able to defend their youngsters, but it failed. Therefore the zoo decided to keep the breeding group of mongooses together with a bachelor group of Meerkats, which combination seems to work without problems (MÄGDEFRAU 2018, pers. comm.). After one of the mongooses died in GaiaZOO the institution had to separate the species (BOER 2018, pers. comm.).
Mongooses can play prey and predator species in a mixed exhibit as well. According to several zoos experiences the mongoose and Lion cohabitation was not successful. In these cases the smaller species had an enclosure of their own and they have had access to the enclosure of the big cats through tunnels, where many alternative tunnels and exits were hidden. In a coexistence of mongooses and Lions lethal accidents have also been reported during the period of introduction as one of the Lions was able to catch a mongoose at Zoologischer Garten Schwerin and ZOO Antwerpen (HAMMER 2002, PAPIES 2018, pers. comm.). In Zoo Basel Yellow Mongooses were also killed and eaten by Lions (HOUWALD 2018, pers. comm.).
One of the most important question is to decide whether we would like to breed the species involved in a multi-species exhibit. On several occasions, Porcupines, South African Ground Squirrels and Rock Hyraxes with youngsters had to be separated from Meerkats, as the mongooses could have been dangerous to the babies and might have killed them. A few lethal accidents have also been reported with these combinations. Young South African Ground Squirrels were killed by Meerkats in Basel (HOUWALD 2018, pers. comm.). Banded Mongooses and Rock Hyraxes should have been separated in Tiergarten Nürnberg due to stress and birth problems in hyrax group (HAMMER 2002, MÄGDEFRAU 2018, pers. comm. ). GaiaZOO combined Meerkat with Rock Hyrax and as long as they kept a non-breeding situation with the hyraxes, everything went well, but when the young were born aggression started towards the mongooses (BOER 2018, pers. comm.). In Oglebay Good Zoo some aggression between male Rock Hyrax and Meerkats was also occured when first introduced. Male hyrax was somewhat aggressive with Meerkats when it was first introduced to the exhibit but female hyraxes got along very well with the mongooses. They would even curl up together when temperature would get cooler.  Most of the aggression between the male hyrax and the Meerkats occurred over a nestbox as both species were trying to occupy. When nestboxes with holes small enough to keep the hyrax out were made, all got along well. Male hyrax has also been separated when young mongooses were present (PETEFISH 2004).

One of the oldest and most famous mixed-species exhibit with mongooses is the Kopje Exhibit at San Diego Zoo opened in 1986. The masterful artificial rock outcroppings imitates a naturalistic landscape and beforehand was home to Common Dwarf Mongooses, Rock Hyraxes, South African Ground Squirrels and Klipspringers. At peresent the rodents are not here anymore (SIMERSON 2018, pers. comm.). Mongoose family have been seen chasing and molesting a ground squirrel. The rodents did not come out during daytime when the small carnivores were most active, they were tend to hide in underground tunnels. A pregnant  squirrel was also kept separately from the group (HAMMER 2002).

Exhibiting mongooses - especially Meerkats - with Porcupines - especially with genus Hystrix - is the most usual combination which seems to work without problems in the majority of the cases. It is important to mention that mongooses could have been dangerous to the porcupine babies and might have killed them - a few lethal accidents have also been reported - so the female Porcupines with babies have to separated from the mongooses for a few weeks after births.
Many species of mongooses - especially Meerkats - are excellent diggers and holes could be dangerous for small and large ungulate species as well. The hoofed mammals could also be dangerous as well, on one occasion in London Zoo a couple of Meerkats were trampled to death by a Giraffe, as the mongooses have had free access to the ungulate indoor stalls but they quickly learnt to be more cautious (HAMMER 2002).
Housing diurnal mongoose species with nocturnal species, such as Aardvarks, means that animals generally use the exhibit at different times of the day. In Philadelphia Zoo Meerkats had climbing structures and hollowed logs the Aardvark did not have access to or fit into, furthermore, a plexiglass wall with a mongoose-sized access divided the space so that the Meerkats had an area of their own (HAMMER 2002).
In many cases, primates pose special problems in a multi-species exhibit. In Zoo Prague the Common Dwarf Mongoose and Garnett's Greater Galalgo coexistence is partly successful. There were always two galago males and a family group of mongooses. The breeding of mongooses was always very limited, but it was never clear if the presence of the primates is the reason for it.  The previous group of mongooses had some aggression towards the galagos, especially attacking the galagos and tried to bite them on their tails.  At present the major problem is the proper feeding: to prevent eating the other species' diet, galagos are partly fed from hand and mongooses are fed in bowls hidden in the nestboxes with small openings to prevent galago activity (BRANDL 2018, pers. comm.). In Zoo Heidelberg the mixed exhibit with White-tailed Mongooses and Western Lowland Gorillas has worked without problems for several years, until
a subadult gorilla male started to chase and catch the mongooses which were older meanwhile and not so fast as before. Then the zoo had to stop it and kept the old mongooses together with the Northern Plains Gray Langurs which worked well until the last mongoose died in a natural way due to high age. Also in Heidelberg the Indian Grey Mongooses were kept successfully together with Rhesus Macaques and Dwarf Goats (REICHLER-DANIELOWSKI 2018, pers. comm.). In Tiergarten Schönbrunn Meerkats share the exhibit with King Colobuses. This combination - as in most of the cases - seems to depend on the individuals. The first colobus male was aggressiv towards the Meerkats and even killed one offspring once. Now the institution has a new male and there are no problems at all any more. The mongooses sometimes play with the tip of the tails of the colobus (DUNGL 2018, pers. comm.).

In some cases, overt aggression between the species occured. Banded Mongoose and Mandrill coexistence was not successful at Zoo Dresden. Firstly the mongooses were given exclusive access to the outdoor enclosure for several days to habituate them to the new environment.  Several days after Mandrills had also been given access to the outdoor enclosure and after that the primates - except the alpha male - chased the mongoose whenever they could. Two mongoose were lethally injured (ZIEGLER 2002). Even in the absence of a high level of aggression between the species, there may be evidence that one of the species is under stress. Diana Monkey and Common Cusimanse cohabitation in Newquay Zoo proved to be unsuccessful as well. The primates began to grab at the mongooses and eventually tried to pick the Cusimanse up which has also resulted in the monkeys receiving a number of bites to their fingers (TAYLOR 2012, pers. comm.). Marsh Mongooses and Eastern Black-and-white Colobuses coexisted very well for many years in Randers Regnskov. The species did not really interact much since the monkeys mostly stayed in the top of the enclosure whereas the mongooses only used the floor (WINTHER LASSEN 2018, pers. comm.).

The Common Dwarf Mongoose and Hornbill mixed exhibits works perfectly fine in Vienna, Bronx and Nuremberg as well (DUNGL 2018, pers. comm., McCANN 2018, pers. comm., MÄGDEFRAU 2018, pers. comm.). In Vienna there is a plan to introduce a third species, the Giant Plated Lizard (Matobosaurus validus) into the exhibit as well (DUNGL 2018, pers. comm.).

 

Madagascar Carnivores

 

Some mixed exhibits with Madagascar Carnivores have also been reported. In Zoo Heidelberg - after the White-tailed Mongoose and Northern Plains Gray Langur cohabitation has been ended - the monkeys now share their exhibit with an older female Ring-tailed Vonstira which works without problems (REICHLER-DANIELOWSKI 2018, pers. comm.). Dierenpark Zie-ZOO has tried out mix their Ring-tailed Vontsiras with Leopard Tortoise but the small carnivores attacked the legs of the reptiles so the species had to separated (DE GREEF 2018, pers. comm.).

The Narrow-striped Boky and Crowned Lemur mixed exhibit at Newquay Zoo was a success. The lemurs were introduced to the enclosure first to become familiar with the new environment. The mongooses were introduced to their indoor area a week later and kept inside for a couple of days to become familiar with their new surroundings and nest boxes. When they were introduced to each other for the first time, both species seemed a little surprised to see each other, but there was no adverse interaction or any indications of stress (TAYLOR 2010). Both of the species was bred during the coexistence. When the lemurs bred the mongoose were locked in during the day and allowed out during the evening and vice versa for the lemurs due to potential predation of the lemur offspring (TAYLOR 2012, pers. comm.).

 


 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 


 

I would like to thank all the persons very much who helped to improve this short summary with providing information and photographs as well, in particulare:

 

Brian AUCONE  (Denver Zoo, United States of America),  Hanneke de BOER (GaiaZOO, Kerkrade, the Netherlands), Dr. Pavel BRANDL (Zoologická zahrada hl. m. Prahy, Czech Republic), Nicolas BRÜNING (Zoo Frankfurt, Germany), Dr. Eveline DUNGL (Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria), John de GREEF (Dierenpark Zie-Zoo, Volkel, the Netherlands), Dr. Friederike von HOUWALD (Zoo Basel, Switzerland),  Jennifer IRELAND (North Carolina Zoo, Asheboro, United States of America), Dr. Helmut MÄGDEFRAU (Tiergarten Nürnberg, Germany),   Colleen McCANN (Bronx Zoo, New York, United States of America), Matthias PAPIES (ZOO Antwerpen, Belgium), Sandra REICHLER-DANIELOWSKI (Zoo Heidelberg, Germany), Fabian SCHMIDT (Zoo Leipzig, Germany), Curby SIMERSON (San Diego Zoo, United States of America), Owen TAYLOR (Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, United Kingdom), Hilda TRESZ (Phoenix Zoo, United States of America), Lars VERSTEEGE (Safaripark Beekse Bergen, Hilvarenbeek, the Netherlands), Guna VITOLA (Rīgas Nacionālais zooloģiskais dārzs, Latvia), Anne Rikke WINTHER LASSEN  (Randers Regnskov, Denmark)

 

As well as I would like to thank all the persons very much who helped to improve this document  with providing further photographs, their names are lsited below:

 

Tamás BOROS, Xavier Bayod FARRÉ, Örs GÖRÖG, Arjan HAVERKAMP,  Alan HILL, Christopher HOLLAND, Larry JACKSON, Kåre JENSEN, Alex KANTOROVICH, Jutta KIRCHNER, Anna LIFLYAND, Jonas LIVET, Aniketan MATH, Anita MAZÁCS, Scott RICHARDSON, Maarten de RUITER, York von SELASINSKY, Petra URBANEK

 


 

References:

 


 

GILCHRIST, J. S, JENNINGS, A. P., VERON, G. & CAVALLINI, P. 2009. Family Herpestidae (Mongooses). Pp. 262-328 in: WILSON, D. E. & MITTERMEIER, R. A. eds. 2009. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

 

HAMMER, G. 2002. Mixed species exhibits involved mammals: stock report and problems. Dissertation. Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät Universität Salzburg.

 

MACDONALD, D. (ed.) 2001. The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Brown Reference Group Limited

 

PETEFISH, D. 2004. Mixed Species Survey. Peoria’s Glen Oak Zoo

 

RASA, O. A. 1983. Dwarf mongoose and hornbill mutualism in the Taru Desert, Kenya. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 12(3), 181-190.

 

TAYLOR, O. 2010. Managing the Narrow-striped Mongoose in a mixed exhibit at Newquay Zoo. International Zoo News, Vol. 57/4., No. 381. Published by the North of England Zoological Society.

 

ZIEGLER, T. 2002. Selected Mixed Species Exhibits in Zoological Gardens. Primate Report 64, Pp. 17.

 

www.zoochat.com

 

 

 

 

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